Sandy Hill
History of an Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Neighbourhood
By Marc St. Pierre



December 12, 2002:

	Sandy Hill is a community located just South-East of Ottawa's downtown core.  
    Located on a hill, this area is known for the diverse architectural styles 
    of its residences, its numerous embassies, and its important institutions.  
    Sandy Hill's physical appearance is the product of its Georgian layout and 
    its many ‘lost leader' institutions designed to attract residents. The arrival 
    of many wealthy home-buyers of mixed cultural backgrounds, along with the 
    presence of a skilled workforce with good local resources led to the varied house styles.  
    The construction of the Parliament Buildings also affected Sandy Hill by imposing a 
    strong Gothic influence in the community. Lastly, strong community action has kept 
    many undesirable businesses and building renovations at bay.

	The community of Sandy Hill is perched atop a hill just south of The Market.  
    It is bordered by the Rideau canal to the West, the Rideau river to the East, 
    the Queensway to the South, and Rideau Street to the North.  Although the area 
    is now an old, established community with large mature trees and a relatively 
    diverse class base, it was not always so.

	In the 1860's Sandy Hill was just that - a barren desolate hill. For the past 
    30 years the people of Ottawa had logged the trees which once crowned the hill.  
    When Ottawa became the capital of the Upper and Lower Canadas in 1865 there 
    was suddenly a large influx of some 300-400 people, mostly associated with 
    the workings of the government. Had these folks been your everyday day regular 
    labourers and entrepreneurs, they probably would have settled in the already 
    crowded Lowertown or the commercialized Uppertown, but as it was the majority 
    of these white-collar workers chose to settle in the brand new community of 
    Sandy Hill.  

	With the arrival of so many new residents and basically a new class of people, 
    majority landowners Louis Besserer and Colonel By decided to survey their land 
    on and around Sandy Hill. Besserer and J.W. Stewart were given the job of 
    planning the community and decided to impose a Georgian street plan on the area, 
    totally disregarding the hilly topography and any street plan which might better 
    fit it. So, south of Rideau street all the way to Laurier one sees the typical 
    Georgian street plan with 66' roads. However, south of Laurier, the two men 
    decided that all roads should be only 60' in width in order to save money and 
    to increase property size. It is thus that not all the streets north and south 
    of Laurier line up with each other. Besserer and Stewart also changed the 
    orientation of the rectangular blocks from East-West, seen North of Laurier, 
    to North-South, seen South of Laurier. The overall effect of these changes to 
    the Sandy Hill area is that a barrier was created along Laurier street, dividing 
    the North and South sections of the community.

	During the 1870's one sees many institutional buildings being built - more so 
    than the small, yet growing population of Sandy Hill would warrant. The theory 
    is that the construction of these businesses was a way to attract people to 
    settle in the area. Institutions would be built by the city or someone outside 
    the community (rather than the community itself), in the hopes that they would 
    attract workers who would then eventually buy a house in the community. The 
    idea originated from a marketing ploy in grocery stores, wherein they would offer 
    cheap milk so that customers coming in to buy milk might also buy expensive items 
    while they were in the store. Hence the nickname of the institutions as 
    ‘lost leaders' (HIST 3209, Thurs. Oct 17th, 2002).
	
	‘Lost leader' institutions have played an important role in the shaping of the 
    Sandy Hill area. The College de Bytown, now known as the University of Ottawa, 
    is one such example of a ‘lost leader' institution.  Founded in 1848 by Bishop 
    Guiges, the College was originally next to the vestry of Notre-Dame Cathedral on 
    Sussex Drive, but moved to Sandy Hill in order to expand. (History of the U. of O.)   
    Other examples of ‘lost leader' institutions are St. Josephs Rectory on 
    151 Laurier, the courthouse, the jail and the registry office. Therefore, some 
    of Sandy Hill's most visible institutions were built with the idea of attracting 
    workers (mainly white-collar) to the area. They also served to attract other 
    businesses and institutions, and to establish Sandy Hill as an important place, 
    not just an average little community.  
	
	In addition, it is possible that, not only were these institutions designed to 
    attract people, but maybe they were designed to attract a certain type of person. 
    Most of these businesses and organizations would have appealed only to educated 
    Middle to Upper class people. For example, only people with some sort of education 
    and money would have qualified to use or work in such places as the College de 
    Bytown, the Courthouse, the Jail or the Registry Office. Thus, for the most part, 
    only wealthy, educated High class people would have been attracted by the 
    ‘lost leader' institutions. This phenomenon becomes even more apparent when one 
    looks at the community churches as ‘lost leaders'. Consider that "the leading 
    Irish-Catholic political families... coalesced around St. Joseph's Church in 
    Sandy Hill, and the fashionable French Canadians did the same around the nearby 
    l'eglise Sacre-Coeur"(Gwyn-68).

	With a pre-planned community layout and several important institutions, Sandy 
    Hill was well on its way to becoming a favourite place of residence for newly 
    arriving government workers.  However, several additional factors had to have 
    been present in order to attract all these people. After all, Sandy Hill was a 
    rat-infested, deforested hill with a sewage problem, leading none other than 
    Sir John A. MacDonald to move his desk upstairs in order to escape "the stench 
    in his ground-floor study"(Gwyn-54) of Stadacona Hall. So what is it that made 
    Sandy Hill an ideal community?  

	Located atop a hill, there is a good chance that this area appealed to the 
    wealthy in that they could look down upon the rest of the city. Furthermore, 
    its proximity to the Lowertown market allowed for servants to buy groceries on 
    foot, rather than with the help of a horse and carriage. The community was 
    also conveniently located near the only bridge spanning the Rideau Canal in 
    the Ottawa area, Sapper's Bridge. Thus, Sandy Hill residents, most of whom 
    worked in the Parliament Buildings in Uppertown, had only a short way to go 
    in order to get to work. The fact that MacTaggart Street station and the Lay By 
    were close also would have appealed to prospective home-buyers in the Ottawa 
    area. 
   
	A characteristic of Sandy Hill which makes it unique to the rest of the city 
    is the rich and varied architectural styles of its homes. In a five minute 
    drive through the community, one may see a dozen different house styles, ranging 
    from Spanish Colonial Revival and Victorian, to Georgian and Romanesque. More 
    importantly, however, by looking at the history of the area one may begin to 
    understand why Sandy Hill homes look as they do. 

	Conditions for the architectural mosaic of the area were perfect from its very 
    beginning. A large infusion of wealthy home-buyers with a relatively broad 
    religious and cultural base, and skilled labourers with the resources to back 
    them up all played an important role in the building of Sandy Hill's homes.  
    The wealthy potential homeowners were the white-collar workers. These workers 
    who eventually settled in Sandy Hill were not of a single homogenous religion 
    or culture, as seen in Lowertown, New Edinburgh, and Uppertown. Interestingly 
    enough, they were a group of people united by social class, not ethnicity.  
    Thus, contrary to other communities dominated by just one or two cultures and 
    religions where only a few architectural designs are present, Sandy Hill's 
    diverse people brought with them diverse architectural styles.

	Yet another reason these homes presented a more diverse collection of styles 
    may be due to the presence of skilled woodworkers and masons, and the raw 
    materials needed to build the homes with. Since the great construction 
    projects of the Parliament Buildings and the Rideau Canal, the Ottawa area 
    probably enjoyed an increase in the number and diversity of tradesmen.  
    These men, especially those with experience on the Gothic style Parliament 
    Buildings, would have been invaluable to the development of Sandy Hill's homes, 
    such as Stadacona Hall with its gothic design (Fletcher-186). Likewise, the 
    specialization of the lumber industry in the Ottawa area, as well as the 
    opening of more and more rock quarries would have provided the specialized 
    building materials and intricately carved wood needed in homes like Philomene 
    Terrace (Fletcher-184).

	The influence of culture on architecture in Sandy Hill is seen at several 
    properties. For instance, the Embassy of the Russian Federation on 285 Charlotte 
    presents "a stolid, bleak image to the streetscape" (Fletcher-181).  Referred to 
    as a Stalinesque Brutalist style, the embassy is representative (at least in my mind) 
    of the harsh, bleak life of communist Russia. Likewise, the oddly angled, but 
    innovative window style on the South and West side of Montpetit Hall of the 
    University of Ottawa could be representative of the idealistic mind set of the 
    university culture.

	The work of skilled tradesmen and varied resources is also seen in several 
    residences in the Sandy Hill area. The Odell House on 180 Waller demonstrates 
    the skills and resources of its builder, Horace C. Odell, as a mason and brickyard 
    owner. Odell incorporated many fancy features into this house, such as "round-headed 
    dormer windows...draped hood mouldings with prominent keystones...[and a] wishbone 
    gable atop its panel and inset windows in its double door" (Fletcher-195).  
    The previously mentioned Philomene Terrace was also a highly decorated building 
    with very detailed wood carvings on the porch and gables, and limestone masonry 
    complete with ‘fire walls' of stone at both ends of the Terrace gables. Again, 
    a good example of Ottawa's fine tradesmen and their wide range of available resources.  

	In his book Ottawa: City of the Big Ears, Haig writes, "The beautiful Gothic 
    detail of the Centre Block induces much pride in the new Dominion"(122). Sandy 
    Hill was no exception to this and its citizens demonstrated their pride by emulating 
    the Gothic style of the Parliament Buildings in their community. Two houses within 
    a block of each other were both built in a Victorian Gothic design. David Ewart's 
    house on 464 Besserer and the Patterson House on 336 Daly are two examples of the 
    effect of the Gothic Parliament Buildings on Sandy Hill. Ewart's house has 
    "trefoil-arched dormers"(Fletcher 185) with inset gothic window frames, while the 
    Patterson House of 245 Augusta, "is a cream-coloured stucco Gothic cottage"(Fletcher-186).  
    Other examples of the Gothic influence in Sandy Hill range from the Anglican Church 
    of St. Alban's the Martyr (1867) and Stadacona Hall (1871), to the neo-Gothic style 
    church which burned down and was replaced by Sacre Coeur Church.

	Another driving force behind the appearance of Sandy Hill has been the people. The 
    area has a rich history of community action and participation which has, over the 
    years, shaped the communities appearance considerably by weeding out NIMBY 
    (‘not in my backyard') businesses and institutions. As early as the late 1870's 
    citizens were uniting against the construction of a new Grey Nuns hospital in 
    their community, fearing the potential spreading of diseases, such as influenza 
    and plague, in their backyard.  Though the hospital was eventually built, it was 
    quickly burned down by local residents.  Yet again in 1893 citizens raised their 
    voices and took action.  When the 1836 wooden Cummings Bridge was replaced in 1893 
    and named after Samuel Bingham by the city, angry people tore down the name plaque 
    and threw it in the river.  The bridge is still named after Cummings today as a 
    result.

	Community action has not just been a thing of the past. As recently as 1991 the 
    Sandy Hill community stopped a resident from turning his house into a shelter for 
    homeless women. Eric Cohen, the homeowner, then decided to turn his place into a 
    42 bedroom rooming house, which also did not appease local citizens.  In the end 
    he buckled under pressure from the Ontario Municipal Board and local neighbours, 
    scrapping his rooming house plan. Similarly, when the owner of the beautiful 
    Paterson House on 500 Wilbrod proposed to turn the mansion into a Bed and Breakfast 
    the community intervened and had the building proposal rejected due to, 
    "insufficient parking spaces, potential noise and alcohol issues..."(Fletcher-183).

	Thus, one sees a strong tradition of community action wherein non-desirable NIMBY 
    institutions and businesses are kept at bay to the community. Nowadays, in addition 
    to dedicated citizens groups, Sandy Hill has several specific bylaws aimed at 
    preserving its heritage sites and older buildings. 

	Conversely, many find it surprising to learn that Sandy Hill has an area of high 
    density housing (referring to apartment buildings, not terrace and town homes).  
    The North-East corner of the community along Charlotte is known as apartment alley 
    and according to Fletcher is "a series of high-density dwellings built in the 
    early 1900's in response to the demand for more housing adjacent to downtown" (183).  
    What is curious about this is why the rich Sandy Hill citizens and their unusually 
    active community groups would have allowed this obviously lower-income oriented 
    housing to be built in Sandy Hill, while they fought ferociously to disallow other 
    such potential ‘black marks' on the area.  Although the answer to this question 
    could not be found, one thing is apparent- all the high-density housing in Sandy 
    Hill is located on the fringes of the community.  It is doubtful that this is a 
    coincidence, and most likely is was a case of, ‘if it must be put here, put it as 
    close to the outside as possible!'

	Sandy Hill's close proximity to the Rideau river, its large mature trees and its 
    development into a mainly Middle and Upper class district precipitated the arrival 
    of Embassies. Today, there are maybe a dozen Embassies in Sandy Hill, mostly all 
    overlooking Strathcona Park and located on one of the four following streets: 
    Range Road, Laurier, Charlotte or Wilbrod. Due to the presence of these Embassies 
    in the Sandy Hill area "a new polyglot and cosmopolitan atmosphere began to 
    permeate the social and political life.."(Eggleston-35). This atmosphere now 
    adds to the uniqueness of Sandy Hill and no doubt has, and continues to, attract 
    new residents and enterprises to the community.

	In conclusion, Sandy Hill is today a lovely place to walk through. No longer is 
    there the smell of raw sewage and a treeless landscape. Now there are large, 
    mature trees lining the roads which compliment the beautiful and varied 
    architecture of homes, ranging from huge mansions to quaint bungalows.  
    Yet there are still reminders of why the community looks the way it does; 
    straight orthogonal streets reflect the Georgian plan, important institutions 
    represent the area's attempts to attract residents, and varied architectural 
    styles remind us of the wealth of the area, the prevailing cultures, as well as 
    the skill and resources of labourers at the time. Last but not least, the lack 
    of undesirable businesses in the area tell of the community's strong voice. 	

BIBLIOGRAPHY
#1. http://sfuo.ca/static/home/about/uottawa/index History of the U. of O. Student Federation of the University of Ottawa. (Accessed on Oct. 21, 2002 and Oct. 24, 2002). #2. Eggleston, Wilfrid. The Queen's Choice (1961) The National Capital Commision, Ottawa, Canada. #3. Fletcher, Katharine. Capital Walks: Walking Tours of Ottawa (1993) McClelland &Stewart, Toronto. #4. Gwyn, Sandra. The Private Capital (1984) McClelland &Stewart, Toronto. #5. Haig, Robert. Ottawa: City of the Big Ears (1975) Haig and Haig Publishing Co., Ottawa. By: Marc St. Pierre (marcstpierre59@hotmail.com), Fall 2002


October 17, 2002: (These are some notes from Professor Taylor's Urban History class today) In 1841, the Act of Union joined Upper Canada and Lower Canada into one province. Geographically then, Bytown was at the center of the United Canadas, rather than being on the periphery of two provinces. In 1848 Thomas McKay, who had mills and a small village at Rideau Falls (New Edinburgh) began exporting sawn lumber, by barge, down the Ottawa River through Lake Champlain to the northern United States market. American entrepreneurs such as Weston and Bronson began to explore business opportunities in the Bytown area. They were able to obtain leases to the hydraulic power at the Chaudiere Falls and they began to establish lumber mills on Victoria Island. A settlement of blue collar mill workers grew at Lebreton Flats and at Wrightville on the north side of the Ottawa River. These wooden houses were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1900 but were soon rebuilt. At that time, most of the mill owners (e.g. Bronson and J.R. Booth), moved to higher ground above Nanny Goat Hill. This was a change in the industrial order. During the time of the square timber trade, the entrepreneur / owners lived outside of Bytown (John Egan at Eganville on the Madawaska), Gilmour (I think) at Arnprior and others at Buckingham, and McKay at the mouth of the Rideau. The leaders in the sawn lumber industry, in contrast, were centralized, along with their workers, in Bytown/Ottawa. In 1855 the City of Ottawa was incorporated. This was partly done to extricate itself from the rest of Carleton County, to which many of Ottawa's tax dollars went. Colonel John By died in 1836, leaving a large estate (immediately south of Nicholas Sparks' property and extending as far south as Gladstone Avenue and Mann Avenue). This property was acquired by a land development company owned by group of local speculators. N.B. At this time there were several "neighbourhoods" in Bytown/Ottawa. The Irish Catholics and French lived in Lowertown, the English, Scottish, and Irish Protestants lived in Uppertown (Vittoria Avenue, Wellington Street and Sparks Streets), the blue collar mill workers lived at LeBreton Flats and there was a settlement at New Edinburgh - around Thomas McKay's mills at Rideau Falls. The Bytown and Prescott Railway (narrow gauge) entered the town from Manotick Station where my ancestors supplied the steam engines with firewood), through Gloucester and crossed the Rideau River to Taggart Street in Lowertown, where there was a station. J. R. Booth's railway entered the city and ran along what is the Queensway today. From the Queensway it ran north to LeBreton Flats and another spur followed the east side of the Rideau Canal, past todays Conference Center, which was originally the CNR Station. It crossed Wellington/Rideau Street and travelled along the east side of the 6 entrance locks. Those were the days. The Chateau Laurier Hotel was built about 1910? - it was a CN Hotel. Louis T. Besserer of Montreal owned what is now "Sandy Hill" - south of Rideau Street to Laurier Avenue. This estate was managed for him by J.W. Stewart (Stewarton on the map). Beginning in 1865, approximately 400 politicians and civil servants moved to Ottawa which was by now the capital of the United Canadas. Later, at Confederation in 1867, more politicians and civil servants moved here from the Maritimes. Where would they all live? The lower level civil servants (mostly French and Irish Catholics) chose their new neighbourhood in Lowertown. They made this location decision based on race and religion. The upper income politicians and civil servants chose their neighbourhood based on income. They needed to be accommodated in Upper Town (Sparks land) or in a new neighbourhood in Sandy Hill (Besserer land). To attract settlers (OK, to sell land), Sparks and Besserer began to offer property as "loss-leaders" to various institutions for free. Sparks supplied land for a new Uppertown Market where Confederation Square is today. He also supplied land for a new City Hall. In turn, Besserer (via Stewart) provided land on the east side of the canal for a new Gaol / Jail, Court House and Registry Office. He also freed up land for St. Josephs RC Church, St. Alban's Anglican Church and Bytown College - now the University of Ottawa. In Sandy Hill, Stewart decided to pack more houses into his development by surveying the streets to be only 60 feet wide. The normal is 66 feet wide, with the two market streets in Lowertown (George and York Streets) each being 132 feet wide. This caused an offset of the streets running into Rideau Street, and provided a natural "social barrier" between the neighbourhoods of Lowertown and Sandy Hill. See Capital Walks by Fletcher for more details concerning Sandy Hill and Lowertown.
April 29, 2003:
The Besserer family of Sandy Hill
Hello, I recently read your article about Sandy Hill and was very impressed. I am a descendant of Louis T Besserer and I am currently doing some research into the donation of land to build the University of Ottawa. I was wondering if you may know where I can find access to any information about the agreement of donation to build the school. Thank you very much Ryan Besserer E-mail: Bezz@mail.auracom.com ____________________________ Hi Ryan: Thanks for your e-mail. You could try contacting Serge Barbe who is the archivist for the City of Ottawa. He may have the information or will be able to direct you to the source. ... Al Lewis
March 5, 2004: Hi, I am a descendant of the Besserer family, grandson of Georges Besserer. I have studied at the Univ. of Ottawa and have lived in Sandy Hill for the most part of my life. Although I did not yet explore the question of the donation of Land for the Bytown college, it is a well acknowledged reality. I think the U of O. archivist might be of some help. But I learned that the documentation can be found in the Perth County archives. I hope we can learn more of the history of the land that was given as an acknowledgment of service in the army at the end of the 18thc and beginning of the 19th (if I am not mistaken-- I do not have the facts in hand right now) Yours and of hope of keeping in contact, Georges Tissot _________________________ Here are some early records concerning Louis Theodore Besserer: 6 Aug 1843 Burial in the church of this mission of Dame Marie Angele Reaume / Rheaume, aged 34 yrs., who died the day before, wife of Louis Theodore Besserer, Esq. Of Bytown Witnesses: Prospere Olivier & Joseph Turgeon 11 May 1844 Funeral service for Gustave Honourus Besserer, son of Louis Theodore Besserer, resident of Bytown, and the late Marie Angele Reaume / Rheaume. He was buried in the new church 2 Mar 1848 Baptism of Louis Guillaume Cameron, born 25 August of the marriage of Louis Theodore Besserer, Esq., Notary Public, and Dame Marguerite Cameron of Gloucester Rose de Lima Leger Parisien
Source: Ellen Paul's records of Notre Dame Cathedral
March 24, 2004: Dear Marc et al: I have in my possession the Besserer papers you are talking about for the university & the family & history of the family tree. I have, a few years back gave copies to the Ottawa Archives. I also have the original map of ownership of L.T, Besserer also his photograph and the copy of the grant of Sandy Hill. he also owned Besserer's Cove in Orleans which is now Hiawatha park. He was originally buried in MacDonald's cemetery which is now the park between Charlotte & Cobourg parallel to Rideau. But in later years the coffins were moved to Beechwood cemetery and buried in a lot that contains about 16 coffins and places for an outlandish amount of urns. But unfortunately nobody bothered to enscribe his name on the stone on this huge...huge lot. For any other info that I may have, write to me. I am also a great great grand daughter Of L.T. ... Claire __________________ also posted on March 24, 2004: See also Timothy O'Brien whose descendant Dr. John Robert O'Brien practised medicine in Sandy Hill.
November 1, 2004: Hi everyone, My name is Shawn Besserer and I am trying to trace back my family roots, and was hoping you may be of assistance. My great grand-father is Alex Besserer, of North Bay (where's there is a street named after him). I think he was born around 1900 (Birth place unknown), and passed away around 1950. I am particulary interested in the names of Louis-Theodore Besserer's 12 children, and the names of any brothers or sisters he may have had. Thank you for any help, Shawn sbesserer@ntl.sympatico.ca


June 30, 2005: Good day everyone, My name is Sylvie Besserer-LeBouthillier, grand-daughter of Dorcy Besserer and Grace Forget. I believe my grand-father's siblings were: Georges, Percy, Samuel, Gordon, Florence, Margot and Laura. I seem to recall having met you Georges at my grand-father's funeral and remembered you had done some genealogical research on the family name. I know that Johann Théodor Besserer was a German military surgeon and a Calvinist in Prinz Friedrich de Brunswick Regiment that arrived in Canada in 1776. He was the father of Louis Thédore. I also know that Louis Theodore had 12 kids but I can't find their names. Any information on Louis Theodore's children would be greatly appreciated. Also, has anyone been able to trace the genealogy of Johann Theodor Besserer when he was still in Germany? ... Sylvie Besserer-LeBouthillier _________________________ Hello Sylvie: Thanks for your interesting e-mail regarding your Besserer ancestors. This pushes our history back quite a few years! When I was young (in the 1950's) my family was friends with a Samuel Besserer. His wife's name was Loretta. Could he have been one of your grandfather's brothers? He probably would have been born between 1900 and 1910, as a rough guess. Do you mind if I add your e-mail and e-mail address to our web site, as a contact for other researchers? Please let me know. Thanks again. ... Al Lewis ________________________ Good morning Al, Please add me to your email. Whatever I find I will share with you. I believe Samuel was my grand-father's brother. Regards Sylvie ________________________ Sylvie: During the 1950's, Sam and Loretta lived on the Ottawa River near the end of Woodroffe Avenue. We used to visit them. There was a raft out in the river where we kids swam (often all day). Sam was known as one of the the best sport fishermen on the river. He would take a couple of the men out fishing with him. I think that there were still booms on the river then to control the logs during the log drives. Anyway, Sam would fish at one end of the boat, and catch fish, while his visitors would fish at the other end of the boat and not catch anything. Then they would switch ends and Sam still caught all the fish. Good memories for kids growing up in 1950's Ottawa. To get to Sam and Loretta's house from Richmond Road, cars had to pass under a railway bridge and also had to cross an iron-grated bridge which was designed to keep the cows from wandering up to Richmond Road. The Ottawa River Parkway has now replaced all of the homes and the railway is long gone. I believe that this area was the original Ira Honeywell estate. Two nearby streets are named "Honeywell" and "Rice". Rice was one of his sons. ... Al
December 12, 2005: Macdonald Gardens Park in Sandy Hill, north of Rideau Street, is being upgraded by local volunteers in conjunction with the City of Ottawa.
May 21, 2008:
Sandy Hill home at 149 Daly Avenue, once owned by Louis T. Besserer. Photo Source: City on the Ottawa by Courtney C. J. Bond, page 58

August 17, 2009: New e-mail address for Dorothy Pratt: dmtpratt@gmail.com
April 30, 2010:
Source: Bytown Gazette, January 14, 1841 See also, the old Sandy Hill Cemetery Besserer Land in Sandy Hill, Ottawa, Canada, 1841 Search the Ottawa Citizen and Bytown Gazette for other articles

January 11, 2012: Have a look at the Sandy Hill Draft Heritage Report.
New January 12, 2014: Sacre Coeur Church on Cumberland Street burned down in 1907 and 1979. The beautiful Gothic building has been re-built. ... Al
E-mail Marc St. Pierre, Ryan Besserer, Georges Tissot, Claire, Dorothy O'Brien Pratt, Shawn Besserer, Sylvie Besserer-LeBouthillier and Al Lewis

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