History of Chaudiere Falls and Lebreton Flats
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Painting by Ruth McMillan in 1976
Shows the Head of the Rideau Canal Locks in Ottawa, Canada in 1893

new1 December 3, 2020:

This painting is by Charles Ramus Forrest (sketched by John Elliott Woolford and 
dated 1821-23). This painting was done for Lord Dalhousie and is reproduced in the book 
Lord Dalhousie, Patron and Collector, page 125, by the National Gallery of Canada, 
2008, ISBN 978-0-888884-845-1.

Chaudiere Falls, as virgin territory

November 26, 2020: Picture Source: From the book Ottawa: City of the Big Ears, by Robert Haig, 1969, Haig and Haig Publishing Company, Ottawa, no ISBN, page 92
Keywords: Samuel Keefer, Suspension Bridge N.B. This is the Second Union Bridge. It was designed by Samuel Keefer and completed in 1844. (Ottawa: The Capital of Canada, by Shirley E. Woods, Jr., page 114) Chaudiere Falls, as virgin territory

November 24, 2020:
A Bridge over the Ottawa River at Chaudiere Falls
This painting was done by John Crawford Young and is from the book Lord Dalhousie, Patron and Collector, page 80, by the National Gallery of Canada, 2008, ISBN 978-0-888884-845-1. Keywords: Lord Dalhousie. The artist is John Crawford Young.
Bridge Over Chaudiere Falls, Sepia, c. 1825-27

November 22, 2020: Picture Source: From the book Ottawa: City of the Big Ears, by Robert Haig, 1969, Haig and Haig Publishing Company, Ottawa, no ISBN, page 42
Chaudiere Falls, as virgin territory Keywords: Petun Indians

November 14, 2020:
The Falls Over the Ottawa in 1823 and the Bridges Over the Falls
This painting was done by James Pattison Cockburn and was given to Lady Dalhousie. This picture is from the book Lord Dalhousie, Patron and Collector, page 73 by the National Gallery of Canada, 2008, ISBN 978-0-888884-845-1. Keywords: Lord Dalhousie Note the raft above, typical of logs being moved downriver to the sawmills.
Pooleys Bridge in Ottawa in 1879

November 6, 2020:
Pooley's Bridge at Lebreton Flats in Ottawa
Pooley's Bridge in Lebreton Flats was built by Lieutenant Pooley of Colonel By's Corps in 1827. This painting was done by Walter Chesterton in 1879. This picture is from page 71 of the book Ottawa: City of the Big Ears, by Robert Haig, 1969, Haig and Haig Publishing Company, Ottawa, no ISBN.
Pooleys Bridge in Ottawa in 1879
Walter Chesterton was born at Kensington, England in 1845, he was educated at private schools before studying at the South Kensington School of Arts. He worked in London for nine years before emigrating to Canada in 1870, where he practiced as an architect at Montreal and Ottawa, designing at the latter place the post office, customs and inland revenue buildings, a church, and various businesses and homes. Source and more information at http://www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/people/chesterton_w.shtml
November 3, 2020: Here is a picture of a log cabin on Lac Chaudiere (now Lac Deschenes). Keyword: William Henry Bartlett.
This picture is from page 55 of the book Ottawa: City of the Big Ears, by Robert Haig, 1969, Haig and Haig Publishing Company, Ottawa, no ISBN. A log cabin on Lac Chaudiere (now Lac Deschenes)
Bartlett was born in Kentish Town, London in 1809. He was apprenticed to John Britton (1771-1857), and became one of the foremost illustrators of topography of his generation. He travelled throughout Britain, and in the mid and late 1840s he travelled extensively in the Balkans and the Middle East. He made four visits to North America between 1836 and 1852. Source: Wikepedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Henry_Bartlett.
November 1, 2020: Here is another picture of people riding the timber slide. The Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) is on board this one in 1860.
This picture is from page 120 of the book Ottawa: City of the Big Ears, by Robert Haig, 1969, Haig and Haig Publishing Company, Ottawa, no ISBN. Another Timber Slide in Bytown

September 26, 2020:
Here are two lumbermen riding a crib of logs down the chute at Chaudiere Falls
Picture Source: Ottawa Waterway: Gateway to a Continent, by Robert Legget,
University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-2189-I, page 112 Lumbermen Riding a Crib at Chaudiere Falls See also our Parliament Hill web page.

October 22, 2020: Source for the following detailed painting of the Great Kettle at the Chaudiere in 1831 is Ottawa Past and Present, by A.H.D. Ross, 1927, Musson Book Company, reprinted by Global Heritage Press in 2007, ISBN 978-1-897446-00-3, page 4. This water colour was painted by Thomas Burrowes from the center of the great truss bridge. (My great great grandfather and his brother helped build this bridge it is number 25 on the next map).
The Great Kettle at Chaudiere Falls, 1831

October 19, 2020: Source for the following detailed map of the Chaudiere Falls in 1831 is Ottawa Past and Present, by A.H.D. Ross, 1927, Musson Book Company, reprinted by Global Heritage Press in 2007, ISBN 978-1-897446-00-3, page 80. This map is a tracing of an ordnance map.
Map showing bridges and islands at Chaudiere Falls, 1831

Photo Source: Where Rivers Meet: An Illustrated History of Ottawa by Courtney C.J. Bond, page 15 First Nations Tobacco Sacrifice at Chaudiere Falls Keywords: Samuel de Champlain, Charles William Jefferys, petun / tobacco sacrifice
September 11, 2020:
Drawing by Colonel By of Chaudiere Falls in 1826 Drawing of the Chaudiere Falls by Colonel John By in 1826
Drawing Source: Page 2 of images section in The Hub and the Spokes by Anson A. Gard, 1906, Re-printed by Global Genealogy in 1999
July 13, 2020:
Source: Painting by W. S. Hunter, photograph from page 224 of Ottawa Old and New by Dr. Lucienne Brault, 1946. Rescue of 8 men at the Chaudiere Falls on Aug.22, 1854 This dramatic rescue occurred on August 22, 1854
December 9, 2019:
Plan of a bridge to be built across the Ottawa River at the Chaudiere Falls, Dated November 1827 Drawing by John Burrows, in the collection of Lord Dalhousie from the book Lord Dalhousie, Patron and Collector, National Gallery of Canada, page 36, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8884-845-1 Keywords: Lord Dalhousie

October 28, 2002: Am wondering if you know of any books/newspapers that make reference to the 1815 incident at Chaudiere Falls, Hull, in which 4 or more persons drowned while going over the falls in a boat or raft. Thank you. Renee Levesque Note: See posting dated February 21, 2007 ... Al
October 28, 2002: Renee: As you know, 1815 is very early in the history of our area. The only real settlement at that time was that of Philemon Wright on the Hull side of the Grand (Ottawa) River. It's probable that a drowning incident was not reported in any newspapers at the time, unless Montreal had a newspaper then. I remember reading in one of the Bytown newspapers from c. 1840, about the deaths of nine lumber workers who drowned while freeing a logjam on the Madawaska River above Arnprior. The names of the victims were published - a mixture of French and Irish names, but no other details were given. I was struck by how matter-of-factly the incident was treated in the newspaper - as if this sort of thing was routine. I remember also reading about a rescue of some persons who went over the Falls, maybe in the 1830's. A boat or raft upset and the occupants became stranded on a small island surrounded by a whirlpool which prevented onlookers from shore from reaching them. Finally, a rope was strung over them and they were pulled to shore. A Mr. Sullivan was involved in the rescue. If the rescue attempt had been unsuccessful, the men would have died of exposure/hunger in full view of the townspeople. See the print, below, by W.H. Bartlett.
Photo Source: Ottawa Waterway, Gateway to a Continent, by Robert Leggett, page 56. Union Bridge at Chaudiere Falls, c. 1840
... Al
October 29, 2002: Hi Al, Thank you for your prompt response and setting up a new page. I know for sure that Benjamin Moore was one of the victims. He was a member of the Moore family who was prominent in the area in those days. There are conflicting reports as to who else drowned. William Wright, Asa Young and Adam Romaine may have been among the others who drowned. Anson Gard has an account of this incident in his book, Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, but it is many years after the drownings and may not be completely accurate. Also, the drowning was mentioned in the Historical Atlas of Carelton County, but I don't know their source. I was thinking that perhaps there may have been a newspaper account of the drowning, especially because there weren't that many people in the area in 1815 and because the Moore family was so prominent. Renee
Early Activity at Chaudiere Falls
Two books, Ottawa: An Illustrated History by John Taylor and Nepean: The City Beyond by Bruce Elliott, have a lot of information on early land speculation, Richmond Landing, mills and power development at the Falls and industrial development at Lebreton Flats. See our bibliography. See also Philomen Wright settlers in 1800. Note for search engine: PW November 22, 2002: and Michael Davidson's pages regarding the history and architecture of the Chaudiere.
September 29, 2004: My gggg Hugh Conley was killed in a snowstorm crossing Lac du Chene in 1830 with a Moore. Do not know if this is the same Moore who died at the same time or not. The record of the death is in Pinhey's diaries. Please note that Hugh Conley's (various spellings) death record is in Pinhey's journals. The date of death is 26 January 1830. I have copies of documentation in this regard. I have quite a bit of several families of the Ottawa Valley who were there as early as 1824. One of their children said their parents attended St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Do you know where I could locate the records. P.S. There was a Lewis family associated with Hugh Conley Senior died in Snow Storm on Lac Chaudiere his son Hugh Conley who drowned in 1862 married the widow Catherine Lewis and had a connected family. Hope this helps others. I understand but do not have proof some took the Conley name. Barbara Hadden
April 22, 2006: I don't know if this is one of the individuals you are interested in. James Hawley died in a canoeing accident at Chaudiere Falls on June 1, 1836. He was the first husband of Margaret Waugh Buckham. Margaret's sister, Isabella, was my 2nd great grandmother. I believe James was originally buried in the Sandy Hill cemetery (most likely the Scottish Presbyterian one). I have found his headstone along with Margaret's and her second husband Robert Bell, along with her parents George and Jennet Buckham in the St. James Cemetery in Hull where bodies and Headstones from Sandy Hill were moved to in 1911. The Buckhams were the first civilian settlers in Torbolton and Buckham's Bay is named for John Buckham son of George and Jennet who secured the original land grant. I got James Hawley's death date from his headstone. I have more info on the Buckham's if you'd like to have it. I have Doris Hope's book "Torbolton Township: It's Earliest History". John Buckham, in particular, was very involved in the community. Shirley MacNutt

April 23, 2006:
Drowning Deaths at the Chats (Fitzroy Harbour) in the 1830's
2 Jul 1831 Burial in the Catholic churchyard of Bytown of Joseph Dany / Danis? / Denis? of St. Benoit, Lower Canada, aged 29 yrs. who was drowned 20 June last at Lake of the Chats (Fitzroy Harbour) (see next) Witnesses: Benj. Dany and Benoni Soucy Angus McDonell, Priest 2 Jul 1831 Burial in the Catholic Church of Abraham Thibault of the parish of Sorel, Lower-Canada, aged 17 yrs. who was drowned on the 20th of June last at Lake of the Chats (see previous) Witnesses: Michael Lessard, Francois Leclerc and Etienne Lapointe Source: Notre Dame Cathedral records (Thanks to Ellen Paul).
February 21, 2007: Thanks to Mary for the following, in reference to above posting dated October 28, 2002: Hi All I was at the Ottawa Public Library today doing research and while reading - The Historical Atlas of Carleton County by H. Belden I came across the names of the men who drowned and they are listed as: Benjamin Moore, Asa Young, and Adam Romaine. There is also mention of a James McConnell who survived. For those of you who are interested I found this on page XXXIV. Hope this helps. Mary
March 8, 2007: Thanks to Wes Cross who has sent in a link to his web page of pre-1901 photographs of the Lebreton Flats and Chaudiere Falls area. Duke Street was familiar to me in the 1950's. We used to travel by car to pick up ice for our ice-box. ... Al Hi Al- I have just completed a new page on my site which provides photos and maps of the Lebreton / Chaudiere districts, pre-1901. Perhaps some of the Bytown or Bust devotees might find helpful. The link is: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/crossroads/help/lebreton/ There are about 40 photos and a couple of maps. I might be adding more material later. Hope all is well with you. Regards ... Wes
December 13, 2008:
The Chaudiere Bridge in 1827 Photo Source: Early Days in the Ottawa Country, Stittsville Public Library Call #971-3, page 3 Chaudiere Bridge, Ottawa, Canada, in 1827

August 17, 2009: New e-mail address for Mary Cox: bytownmary@hotmail.com
November 9, 2009:
Photo Source: Selections from Picturesque Canada: An Affectionate Look Back plate number 35. This sketch was made in the 1870's and shows a view from the back of the Parliament Buildings, overlooking the Ottawa River and Chaudiere Falls. Piles of sawn lumber, (most of it destined for export to the United States market), can be seen on the islands at Chaudiere Falls and across the River in Hull, Quebec.

November 24, 2009:
E.B. Eddy, from Vermont, USA, to Ottawa and Hull, in 1854
The E.B. Eddy Sawmill at Chaudiere Falls Source: Exploring Ottawa, by Harold Kalman and John Roaf, page 91 E.B. Eddy Sawmill at Chaudiere Falls
Ella Bessey was a daughter of E.B. Eddy (see Chugg family history on the Aylmer Road).
December 18, 2009:
Chaudiere Bridge, built in 1914 Source: Exploring Ottawa, by Harold Kalman and John Roaf, page 92 Chaudiere Bridge, built in 1914

February 6, 2010: The Bronson family's Sawmills at Chaudiere Falls in 1857 Source: Where Rivers Meet, by Courtney C.J. Bond, page 58 The Bronson family's Sawmills at Chaudiere Falls in 1857
April 28, 2010: Hi Al, Very interesting page on Mechanicsville. I have an earlier topographical map - the 1935 revision of the 1923 original, 1" = 1mi. Roughly speaking, the whole map covers the area Stittsville to Manotick Station to East Templeton to Breckenridge Station to Stittsville, I'd be glad to scan any sections you might want. The source info is as follows: Sheet 31 G 5 ; scale 1 mile to 1" or 1:63,360. Surveyed by Geographical Section G. S., original survey 1923. Revised 1935. Published by the Geographical Section, General Staff, Department of National Defense. Reprinted 1940. Regards, Al Craig
This extract from the map shows the Lebreton Flats neighbourhood - before it was razed. In the 1950's we had an ice box in the kitchen. We used to drive to Lebreton Flats on Saturday mornings to pick up a couple of blocks of ice, covered in sawdust, on Duke Street. The railway yards are also shown on the map. Mechanicsville, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Topographic Map

May 2, 2010:
The portage route used by the voyageurs was located on the north side of the Ottawa River at Hull, Quebec. The following excerpt is from Freshwater Saga: Memoirs of a Lifetime of Wilderness Canoeing in Canada by Eric W. Morse, University of Toronto Press, 1987, ISBN 0-8020-2610-9, page 69 In the 1920's, Chief Justice Latchford, rediscovered the portage. Canoe Portage Route at Chaudiere Falls, Gatineau / Hull, Quebec, Canada

September 8, 2010:
Early Pictures of Chaudière Falls Here are two pictures from the James Pattison Cockburn Gallery. They are dated 1825 (left) and 1826 (right).
Chaudiere Falls, 1825 drawing by James Pattison Cockburn Chaudiere Falls, 1826 drawing by James Pattison Cockburn
January 10, 2011: A question regarding a John Perkins Hello Friends. Could this question please be added to the "Bytown or Bust" web site ? 'John PERKINS' was involved in establishing the mill(s) at the south end of the Chaudiere complex at Ottawa/Hull in 1842. The remaining building is now labeled 'The Mill Restaurant' although it has been closed for refurbishment in recent years. 'John Adams PERKINS' opened a sawmill on the Blanche River in Lower Canada (Quebec) in 1845, and this was the location which later became Perkins village (now in Val des Monts Municipality). These two locations are not much more than 20 miles apart. Can anyone please tell me whether or not these two 'John PERKINS' were the same person ? Thanks, Ian White

(also posted to our web page for Lyman Perkins)
January 21, 2011:
Map Source: Ottawa, The Capital of Canada by Shirley E. Woods, page 74 This map shows the location of the Thompson and Perkins Sawmill, the McLachlin Saw Mill, the tavern of Isaac Firth and Richmond Landing Chaudiere Falls area in 1828, map by Colonel By, Oyttawa, Canada

June 30, 2011: Hi Al How are you? I am busy writing the story of Thomas Hunton and Family. I will give you a copy once I have completed it. I am currently reading: Records of The Rise And Progress of The City Of Ottawa, from The Foundation Of The Rideau Canal to The Present Time by Gertrude Van Cortlandt, 1858. Casualties At The Chaudiere The first romantic incident, in which human life was concerned, took place on the morning of the 2nd of June, 1848. The following lucid and descriptive account of the event is copied from a number of the Bytown Packet of that period:- "Yesterday, about ten o'clock, A.M; an accident of a serious nature occurred. Two men were upon a crib of oak timber, endeavoring to make the head of the Chaudiere Government slides, but the current, proving too strong, carried them out of the channel. They observed their danger too late, and were carried with the crib over the lost channel. One of the men, named Baptiste Beaudran (Beaudoin ?), jumped off the crib, and was carried over the chute. The other, named Paul Filardeau, kept his hold of the crib until it struck against the table rock. His situation was even here critical, for a dreadful rapid lay between him and the main shore, distant about one hundred and fifty yards. A crowd of the inhabitants, about 500 in number, were soon on the spot, and measures immediately taken to remove the poor fellow from his unpleasant situation. Messrs. McLachlin, Farley, Sullivan, Keefer, and Larmouth, were most active in the attempt. A small cord was first thrown over, to which was attached a stronger one, and finally a cable or hawser, which was attached by Filardeau firmly to the rock. Rings were slipped on to the hawser, to which cords were attached, and one end thrown over to the rock. Filardeau then tied the cords around his body, and slung himself to the rings. Great excitement occurred when he let himself off. He was immediately pulled in along the main rope, not, however, without touching the water several times. When the poor fellow reached the shore, he with the greatest coolness turned to his deliverers, and thanked them in both languages for their kindness. He then walked away, seeming not the least injured." There are more stories similar to this one also appear in her writings. In particular I am trying to identify the Larmouth mentioned in the article. A man named Larmouth worked for Thomas Hunton and I want to know if he is one and the same person. Thanks so much, Mary __________________________ Hi Mary: Hi Mary: Thanks for your e-mail. I think that the Larmouth referred to is Learmonth. This was a prominent early family who arrived from Scotland in Bytown in 1828, possibly settling first in Glengarry County. I can't find a reference to Thomas but he may be a brother of George Learmonth who became a wealthy mill owner at Fitzroy Harbour (see a couple of references to this family at www.bytown.net/fitzroy.htm. This page also has a photograph of the millstone used in the Learmonth mill and a photo of the old mill itself. This is from a book called Beyond our Memory - A history of Fitzroy Township. I have the book here and it includes a picture of George Learmonth and his wife. ... Al
May 22, 2012: There is an archaeological dig taking place at Lebreton Flats. This is being done prior to the building of Ottawa's Light Rail Transit system. Source: Ottawa Citizen, May 20, 2012. Archaeological Dig at Lebreton Flats, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
December 6, 2013: Domtar Lands - Public Consultation December 11th, 2013 Hello Maybe you are already aware of this or maybe not: Buried on page C2 of today's Ottawa Citizen was an article stating that Windmill Development Group will be holding a public consultation Wednesday, December 11th, 5 - 9 pm at the Museum of Civilization. The article says you have to register at their website, the-isles.ca I did not see a place to register at their website, but if you scroll down you will see a spot where you can leave your name and email address for updates. http://the-isles.ca/ I`m sure if you show up they will let you in anyway. As you know, Windmill Development Group has put in a conditional offer to purchase this historical site. As an aside note: Personally I have always wondered how Domtar came to be in possession of the sacred and historic gathering spot by First Nations, anyways. I thought Domtar had leased the lands (islands)from the government. So now I wonder, who sold to Domtar? ... Karen Prytula __________________________________ Karen: Thanks for this. This will be one of the most significant historical developments to take place in Ottawa since the building of the Parliament Buildings prior to Confederation. Let's hope the cities of Ottawa and Gatineau get this right! ... Al
March 18, 2014: Al I thought you would enjoy this map drawn by Lieutenant W. Pooley. His name is at the lower right hand side. Shows proposed bridges and timber-slide. ... Taylor
Map of Chaudiere Falls area by Lieutenant Pooley

June 11, 2014: Lebreton Flats was a victim of a "slum clearance" program by the City of Ottawa in the 1950's. The artist Ralph Burton has preserved the memory of this working class houses and the industrial establishments from that period in his paintings. The City of Ottawa Archives at the corner of Woodroffe Avenue and Tallwood Drive has a very good collection of photographs and paintings of work done by Ralph Burton.
May 9, 2016: The Canadian Museum of History has some interesting research by Jean-Luc Pilon: Archaeological Mysteries of the Ottawa area. This is an academic paper which studies the archaeological discoveries of Dr. Edward Van Cortland at Lebreton Flats in the 1850's.
May 8, 2019: Text Block and picture Below is from page 174 of National Capital Region Heritage Keywords: Thompson-Perkins Mill, The Mill Restaurant, Philip Thompson and John Perkins, Richmond Landing
The Mill Restaurant pic Mill Restaurant Text

May 23, 2019: There is some major development work planned for the Chaudiere Falls. Historically, there has been almost no public access to view and enjoy this spectacular centre-town location. Now, there are plans to develop the natural features so that the general public will be able to live and play in this area!
Log Booms at the Chaudiere Falls, Ottawa, Canada
Source for the above photograph is page 117 of the book Lumber Kings and Shantymen - Logging and lumbering in the Ottawa Valley, by David Lee, James Lorimer & Company, Publishers, ISBN 1-55028-922-5, 2006. Keyword: Lumbering
September 3, 2019:
Water Pumping Station at Lebreton Flats, built in 1874
Source for the above photograph is page 91 of the book John Heney and Son. Keyword: Water Pumping Station at Lebreton Flats

E-mail Allan Lewis

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